The spine is a column of bones called vertebrae that provide stability and support for the upper body. It enables us to turn and twist. Spinal nerves run through openings in the vertebrae and conduct signals from the brain to rest of the body. The surrounding bone and tissues protect these nerves. If they’re damaged or impaired in any way, it can affect functions like walking, balance, and sensation.
Spinal stenosis is a condition in which the spinal column narrows and starts compressing the spinal cord. This process is typically gradual. If the narrowing is minimal, no symptoms will occur. Too much narrowing can compress the nerves and cause problems.
Stenosis can occur anywhere along the spine. How much of the spine is affected can vary.
Spinal stenosis is also called:
- central spinal stenosis
- foraminal spinal stenosis
Symptoms typically progress over time, as nerves become more compressed. You might experience:
- leg or arm weakness
- lower back pain while standing or walking
- numbness in your legs or buttocks
- balance problems
Sitting in a chair usually helps relieve these symptoms. However, they’ll return with periods of standing or walking.
The most common cause of spinal stenosis is aging. Degenerative processes occur throughout your body as it ages. Tissues in your spine may start to thicken, and bones may get bigger, compressing the nerves. Conditions like osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis may also contribute to spinal stenosis. The inflammation they cause can put pressure on your spinal cord.
Other conditions that can cause stenosis include:
- spine defects present at birth
- a naturally narrow spinal cord
- spinal curvature, or scoliosis
- Paget’s disease of the bone, which causes abnormal bone destruction and regrowth
- bone tumors
- achondroplasia, which is a type of dwarfism
If you have the symptoms of spinal stenosis, your doctor will start by taking a medical history, performing a physical exam, and observing your movements. Your doctor may also order tests to confirm a suspected diagnosis, such as:
Pharmaceutical treatment is typically tried first. The goal is to relieve your pain. Cortisone injections into your spinal column can reduce swelling. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can also help with pain.
Physical therapy may also be an option. It can strengthen muscles and gently stretch your body.
Surgery may be needed for severe pain or if there is a neurological loss. It can relieve pressure permanently. Several types of surgery are used to treat spinal stenosis:
- Laminectomy is the most common type of surgery. A surgeon removes part of your vertebrae to provide more room for the nerves.
- Foraminotomy is a surgery that’s done to widen the part of the spine where the nerves exit.
- Spinal fusion is typically performed in more severe cases, especially when multiple levels of the spine are involved, to prevent instability. Bone grafts or metal implants are used to attach the affected bones of the spine together.
Options other than surgery that may ease the pain of spinal stenosis include:
- heat packs or ice
Many people with spinal stenosis lead full lives and remain active. However, they may need to make modifications to their physical activity. Many people have residual pain after treatment or surgery.