The anterior circumflex humeral artery is located near the armpit. It branches from the axillary artery, on the side closest to the outside of the body. It runs alongside latissimus dorsi tendon. It also runs below the biceps' two heads and the coracobrachialis. The coracobrachialis is a muscle that comes from the scapula's coracoid process. The primary function of the coracobrachialis is the raising and lowering of the arms. The artery supplies blood to the deltoids' lower surfaces. The deltoids are triangular-shaped muscles that cover the joint of the shoulder and are used to raise the arms away from the body.

The anterior circumflex humeral artery engages in anastomosis with both the thoracoacromial arteries and the posterior circumflex artery. Anastomosis is a term that depicts a bridging vessel formed by a connection of separate vessels. In general, it entails a connection that is established via tubular structures.